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AMERICAN WARS

    Civil War 

French & Indian
War

Ticonderoga
Battle Bushy Run
 

Battle  On The Monongahela 1755 (Braddock's Defeat)

British
Civilian Wagoneers

French and Indians

The Siege Of
Quebec

British
Louisbourg
Grenadiers
French
 

Battle On
Snowshoes

French and   
Woodland Indians

 

The Raid On St.  Francis 1759
Artillery
Connecticut Regt
Misc
French Militia
New Jersey Regt
Pennsylvania Regt
Royal Americans
Rogers Rangers
South Carolina Regt
Woodland Indians

 


OTHER PERIODS

Ancient Rome

Armies & Enemies
 

World War II

World War II
 

The Seven Years War

Battle of Leuthen
1745

 

Peoples Liberation Army

60th Anniversary
Military Parade

 

First Sudan War

Gordon at  Khartoum
Gordon Highlanders
British Naval
   Brigade

   Mahdists
Royal Marine Light
   Infantry

 

Jacobite Rebellion

Jacobite Rebellion

 

The War Of 1812

British

British Artillery
US Artillery
US Marines
The Battle of   Chippewa
 

WW I The Great
War

American Expeditionary
Australian (ANZAC)
British
Desert Wheels
French
German

Knights of Skies

 

The Condor Legion

Training Ground

 

Spanish Civil War

Spanish Civil War

 

 Peninsular War 18071814

British Foot Artillery
   Pre1812

French Line Infantry

Portugese Line
   Infantry

Portuguese 1st Cazadoes



        

 JOHN JENKINS DESIGNS


THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC

BATTLE OF THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM 1759
 

      The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, took place on the 13th September 1759, and was a pivotal battle in the French and Indian war between the British and French which went a long way in deciding the fate of New France?

      The battle was fought on a plateau just outside and to the west of the walls of Quebec City and was the culmination of a three month long siege of the city. The actual battle lasted less than an hour, during which time, tactics devised by the British commander, General James Wolfe, proved successful in breaking the column advance of French and Canadian troops under The Marquis de Montcalm. Both generals were mortally wounded during the battle.


THE CONDOR LEGION

 

The Wehrmacht's Training Ground
 

      The Condor Legion was the expeditionary force of soldiers and airmen sent by Hitler to aid Franco's Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. The Germans used the war as an opportunity to develop equipment and tactics, and their force included not only instructors, but also combat units of artillery, aircraft, and tanks. These units tested guns, planes and tanks, and perfected techniques that were used in the 1940 Blitzkreig.


      Many of the officers prominent in the early campaigns of WW2 won their first successes in Spain. In October 1936, 2 German ships arrived in Spain loaded with a Panzer 1 Company, and all the services and personnel to establish Franco's army's first armoured unit. The so called PANZERGRUPPE DROHNE. Oberstleutnant Willhelm Ritter Von Thoma was to command the contingent.

 

Gordon at Khartoum

      In the early 1880's, a Muslim uprising began in the Sudan, threatening Egypt and British colonial interests.The Leader of the revolt was Muhammad Ahmad who called himself the "Mahdi". His object was to restore Muslim practices and eradicate foreign influences. Through awe and fear, the Mahdi managed to gather thousands of loyal followers. Ultimately, Great Britain was obliged to address the situation, and did so by sending a national hero to Khartoum, General Charles Gordon, known as "Chinese Gordon" for his leadership in suppressing the Uprising in China some years earlier.

      Charles Gordon was seen as a "Christian Soldier", who as previous Governor General of Equatoria and then the full Sudan, ended slavery. He knew the bible well and had even managed to locate the site of the Genesis Garden of Eden. As a soldier, Gordon was a military engineer, which would serve him well when forced to fortify Khartoum.

      Gordon was also fiercely independent and whose personal view of justice conflicted with political prerogatives. Stubborn, insubordinate, and frequently arrogant, he traveled up the Nile River to evacuate the Europeans and Egyptians despite having publicly criticized this policy in the British press only weeks before his assignment was posted. Gordon's own agenda was to defend Khartoum against the Mahdi.

 

      The Forces of the Mahdi breached Khartoum's defenses in January 1885, slaughtering the inhabitants and murdering GovernorGeneral Charles Gordon. His severed head was paraded before the Mahdi on a pike.

 

THE JACOBITE REBELLION 1745

 

      In 1743 war broke out between England and France. As France was a Catholic nation, it had always supported the Stuarts' claim to the English throne. King Louis XV realized that it would be in his interests if the Stuarts made another attempt to regain the throne. Louis XV informed James Edward Stuart in 1745 that if he invaded England he would supply him with arms and ammunition. James was now fiftyseven years old and was not keen on becoming involved in another military campaign. However, his son Charles Stuart was more enthusiastic, and on 5 July he left France with 700 men.

      Once in Scotland, Charles Stuart, who had been nicknamed Bonnie Prince Charlie, began building up his army. He was especially successful at persuading Catholics living in the Scottish Highlands to join him. In September, Charles was ready to take action. The English army arrived soon afterwards but Charles' army had an easy victory at the Battle of Prestonpans. Charles' 5,000 man army now marched into England and by December he reached Derby.

      Charles had hoped that English Catholics would join his army. This did not happen. In fact, in many of the towns that he marched through, the crowds showed great hostility to Charles' army. Louis XV had promised Charles that 12,000 French soldiers would invade England in the autumn of 1745. However, Louis XV did not keep his promise. Although Charles still wanted to march on London, his military advisers argued that without the support of the French they were certain to be beaten. Reluctantly, Charles agreed to return to Scotland.

      Another English army, this time led by the Duke of Cumberland , followed Charles back into Scotland. Completely outnumbered, Charles's army were chased into the Scottish Highlands.

      In April 1746, Charles Stuart decided to turn and fight the English army. The two forces met at Culloden Moor on 16 April. Cumberland's army devastated the Jacobites and Charles was forced to flee from the battlefield.

      This new series will initially concentrate on the Battle of Culloden Moor.

 

THE WAR OF 1812

 

THE BATTLE OF CHIPPEWA

JULY 5th 1814 

On July 5th 1814, British and US troops met on the plain at Chippewa, Canada. The Battle was to last nearly 3 hours. The battle was to show the whole world that, the army of the young country of America had become a professional military arm, capable of holding its own against the world's best armies.

Brigadier General Winfield Scott commanded the First Brigade of the Left Division of the US Army. He had tried to obtain the correct blue uniform for his men during the spring of 1814, but failed and was forced to accept the grey jackets usually worn as fatigues or undergarments, instead of the regulation short tailed blue coatee. His men would make this humble garment famous, and today the grey uniforms of the West Point Cadets are worn to perpetuate the memory of the Left Division during the 1814 Niagara campaign. 

The British were already deployed on the plain. The British commander General Sir Phineas Riall, upon seeing the greyclad Americans, believed he faced nothing more than "Buffalo Militia". The British artillery were ordered to open up on the American lines and despite the heavy fire from the British guns, Brig. Gen. Winfield Scott's brigade stood firm. Riall soon realized he had made a mistake in identifying the American force as militia, and declared to his staff

Those are regulars, by God!

 The British went on to suffer heavy casualties and were forced to retire. The Battle of Chippewa was an important event in the history of the US army. After two disappointing and demoralizing years of combat in the War of 1812, American regulars finally won a convincing victory over the British army, whose troops were among the best in the world. The American Left Division were to continue their advance along the Niagara peninsula,  leading to the next major engagement at Lundy's Lane on 25thJuly 1814.


French and Indian War

 Ticonderoga, The Battle of Fort Carillon

 

      The Battle was fought on July 8, 1758. In the battle, which took place primarily on a rise about threequarters of a mile (one km) from the fort itself, a French army of about 4,000 men under General LouisJoseph de Montcalm and the Chevalier de Levis decisively defeated an overwhelmingly numerically superior force of British troops under General James Abercrombie, which frontally assaulted an entrenched French position without using field artillery.

      Abercrombie, confident of a quick victory, ignored several viable military options, such as flanking the French breastworks, waiting for his artillery, or laying siege to the fort. Instead, relying on a flawed report from a young military engineer, and ignoring some of that engineer's recommendations, he decided in favor of a direct frontal assault on the thoroughly entrenched French, without the benefit of artillery.

      The battle was the bloodiest of the war, with over 3,000 casualties suffered, of which over 2,000 were British. The 42nd Regiment, known as the Black Watch, paid dearly with the loss of many lives and many severely wounded. More than 300 men (including 8 officers) were killed, and a similar number were wounded, representing a significant fraction of the total casualties suffered by the British.
 

BATTLE ON THE MONONGAHELA 1755

 

      On 9th July 1755 amid the wilderness of North America, Britain suffered one of the most humiliating defeats in her history. General Braddock's army, a mixture of British regulars and American Militia, was devastated, losing over 900 men from a force of 1,300.
General Braddock was killed and his aide, Colonel George Washington, rescued the remnants of his army. This defeat and
subsequent chain of events ultimately led to the start of the Seven Years' War.

 

BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT
 

      General Braddock's army consisted of a mixture of British regulars and American Militia, and set off intending to attack the French at Fort Duquesne. The French knowing they could not withstand British cannon fire, decided to launch a preemptive strike as Braddock's army crossed the Monongahela River. The French force consisted of about 250 regulars and Canadian militia, with about 640 Indian allies. The Canadian militiamen and Indians enveloped the British and fired from the woods and ravines on the sides of the road. After 3 hours of intense battle, Braddock was mortally wounded, and resistance collapsed. By sunset the surviving British and American forces were fleeing back down the road they had built. Braddock died of his wounds during the retreat. Of the 1,460 men Braddock had led into battle, 456 were killed and 421 wounded. The officers were prime targets and suffered greatly. Out of 86 officers, 63 were killed or wounded. George Washington emerged from the disaster as Virginia's military hero, and distinguished himself as being calm and courageous under fire. The French force of 250 had 8 killed and 4 wounded. Their Indian allies lost 15 killed and 12 wounded.
 

BATTLE ON SNOWSHOES, 14th March 1758

 

      On March 14th 1758 a small battle took place in the wilderness of North America. The total number on both sides did not exceed 500 men. The men on the British side were primarily native born settlers from New England led by Robert Rogers, and on the French side native born Canadians and their native Indian allies of New France led by the French partisan Langy. This battle did not end in a draw. Despite the success of an initial ambush by Rogers and his rangers, the battle was to swing the way of the numerically superior French force. It was to be a clear cut victory for the French and Indians and resulted in the almost total annihilation of the best of the newly formed English Rangers.  Only darkness was to save Rogers and the remnants of his force.

 

THE RAID ON St. FRANCIS 1759

 

      Of all the episodes embraced within Robert Roger's chequered career, none gained him greater fame than his 1759 raid upon the Abenaki village of St. Francis. It could be said to be the most incredible feat of the French and Indian War. The three pronged attack to complete the conquest of French Canada was losing momentum. Wolfe had reached a stalemate at Quebec. Gage was making slow progress at Oswego on Lake Ontario, and Amherst, the Commander in Chief was at Crown point awaiting the construction of his fleet for his advance on Montreal. The British needed a safe communication route to Wolfe, as well as a diversion to draw the French forces away from the siege at Quebec.

      Major Robert Rogers raid on the notorious Abenaki Indian town of St. Francis, deep in French Canada, was the answer. The American colonial New Englanders, who had long suffered at the hands of the raiding Abenaki from St. Francis, had good reasons to encourage this daring venture.

      Where better to start the story of the Raid on St.Francis than at Fort Number Four. This was the outpost which marked the northern limit of British settlement in the fertile valley of the Connecticut River, and whose settlers lived in fear from the frequent raids from the Woodland Indians of the Abenaki tribe.

 

The Battle of Bushy Run 1763